An ancient Egypt ring
The main reason for the greatness and durability of the achievements of Egyptian civilization was its specific location. Connectivity through Sinai and Syropalestine with the great centers of civilization, such as Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and later ancient Greece, promoted the exchange of goods and ideas.
The ease of defense against threats from this neighbourhood thanks to natural conditions (Arabian Desert, Red Sea, deserts of the Arabian Peninsula in the east; Mediterranean Sea in the north; Sahara in the west) led to the persistence and homogeneity of Egyptian culture.
The regular flooding of the Nile and the resulting high fertility of the soil were favorable for agricultural development. The maintenance of a complex irrigation system gave birth to the need for administrative supervision, which in turn led to the emergence of a strong central authority, in time religiously ideologized, and the emergence of writing (hieroglyphics).
The proximity of copper, gold, and gemstone mines (Sinai, Nubia) contributed to the development of crafts and trade with neighbours. The general availability of durable building material in the form of stone encouraged the development of construction.
An ancient Egyptian piece of jewelry
A distinctive feature distinguishing Egypt from other civilizations of the ancient Near East was religion. Its leitmotif, the belief in life after death and the cult of the ruler, led to the construction of massive tombs well preserved by deserts (which to this day are among the most important sources of knowledge of the history, culture and mind of the ancient Egyptians).